What is Neurology?
Neurology is a medical specialty with an emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain and nervous system.
Neurology is, in short, the study of disorders dealing with the neurons in the body, also called the nervous system. More importantly, neurology aims to focus on those disorders that plague the nervous system. Much research in the area of neurology is being performed on a daily basis. Many cities often have centers designed specifically for the study of neurology, including Phoenix, Arizona.
The nervous system of the body is made up of multiple neurons that relay messages, both internally and externally to the brain and then back to some effector region of the body to initiate a response. These systems are broken up into two main categories: the central and peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is composed of solely those neurons contained within the brain and spinal cord; whereas the peripheral nervous system contains all those neurons outside of the brain and cord including those nerves in the arms, toes, legs, etc. For example, say you place your hand on a hot stove. The nerves, or bundles of small neurons, sense the heat being applied to the skin. The nerves from the hand travel up the arm and ultimately reach the brain. Here the brain sends a message down the nerves to the hand to tell the muscles in the hand and arm to pull away from the heat source to save the hand from burning. If somewhere along the path, from either to hand to the brain or the brain to the hand, there is a complication with the communication this can be considered a disorder and thus studied by neurologists.
Some hot topics of research in the field of neurology aim to understand the causes and treatments to the illnesses of migraines, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. These are very debilitating diseases and conditions that greatly affect the suffering patient’s quality of life. Not only that, but the lives of those caring for patients with these diseases are also greatly affected and changed.
Migraines are unlike your typical headache. At times these intense headaches cause serious throbbing and pulsating pain in the head of the patient. Not only that, but the patient can experience vomiting and light and sound sensitivity in conjunction with the migraines. These added complications can leave the patient unable to work, interact with people or even go about their daily activities. These “attacks,” as they are referred to, can last for hours to days in duration. Migraines can be triggered without warning, although some can be sensed by the sufferer so in a sense they can feel when a migraine is coming on. Some remedies to aid in relieving the symptoms include sleep, laying in a dark and quiet place, medications, and relaxation. The cause of migraines is not well understood, but may be related to an overactive nerve impulse triggered in the brain and manifested as a severe headache.
Multiple Sclerosis is a disease which affects the coverings of the nerves. These coverings are in effect damaged and unable to perform their needed function for the body. In most cases, nerves are either called myelinated or unmyelinated. Myelinated nerves are those there are covered by an insulating layer of cells. Due to the insulation of these nerves, they are able to transmit a nerve signal much more quickly to the brain and then back again, unlike those nerves that are unmyelinated. In those suffering from multiple sclerosis, they are unable to send messages to and from the brain quickly. Thus, their movements and reactions to stimuli are greatly inhibited. The study of neurology as it pertains to multiple sclerosis is to find the underlying cause of this disease and also to find a remedy for the disease.
Finally, Alzheimer’s disease is one that many people know as dementia. This disease often strikes its victims in the later stages of life in the elderly. This disease causes the sufferer to forget important or well-known facts such as people’s names, dates, time, where they live, etc. This disease is mainly due to an inability of the nerves in the brain to supply the requested information. This is a great topic of research and experimentation in the field of neurology due to the vast amount of people who are affected by this disease.
Neurology is the study of disorders affecting the nervous system of the body. The nervous system is important to all because this system is the communicating link internally and externally with the world. The nervous system is the sole reason why we, as humans, can eat, speak, walk, talk, etc. Any damage to this important system can cause very debilitating disorders.
The study of neurology aims to find causes and solutions to many of the world’s most devastating nervous system disorders.