central nervous system

Central Nervous System

Structure, Function, Body

Intracranial Hypertension

Intracranial Hypertension: is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebral Spinal Fluid pressure has been shown to be influenced by abrupt changes in intrathoracic pressure during coughing and communication with the venous and arterial systems.

External Resource: Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Multiple Sclerosis (MS): also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata, is a potentially debilitating disease in which the body’s immune system eats away at the protective sheath (myelin) that covers the nerves. Damage to myelin causes interference in the communication between the brain, spinal cord and other areas of the body. This condition may result in deterioration of the nerves themselves, a process that is not reversible. MS can take several forms, with new symptoms either occurring in isolated attacks or building up over time. Between attacks, symptoms may go away completely; however, permanent neurological problems often occur, especially as the disease advances.

Internal Resource: MS Center of Excellence


Mycolonus: also known as liar’s twitch, is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles. It is not a disease itself but is a symptom of another condition, such as multiple sclerosisParkinson’s disease, intracranial hypertension, and many others.

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: also known as symptomatic hydrocephalus, is a type of brain malfunction caused by too much cerebrospinal fluid. Symptoms include difficulties with walking, urinary incontinence, and mental decline or dementia. Its symptoms replicate those of many other diseases, making it difficult to diagnose.

External Resource: Hydrocephalus Association

Optic Neuritis

Optic Neuritis: an inflammation of the optic nerve, which may cause a partial or complete loss of vision. The exact cause is unknown, but the condition may be one of the first signs of multiple sclerosis.

External Resource: The Optic Neuritis Foundation


Seizures: also known as a convulsion, is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulted in uncontrolled shaking of the body.

Visit the Epilepsy Foundation for more information.

External Resource: Nationial Seizure Disorders Foundation


Syncope: also known as fainting or passing out, is a sudden, brief loss of consciousness and posture caused by decreased blood flow to the brain. It may be preceded by dizziness, nausea, weakness, sweating, palpitations, and a temporary loss of hearing, vision, or feeling.

Transverse Myelitis

Transverse Myelitis: an inflammation of the spinal cord that can cause pain or other sensory problems, weakness or paralysis of muscles, or bladder and bowel dysfunction. The exact cause is unknown, but the condition has been connected to viral infections, autoimmune disorders, and multiple sclerosis.

External Resource: The Transverse Myelitis Association

Viral Meningitis

Viral Meningitis: is an inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. The swelling associated with meningitis often triggers the most common signs and symptoms of this condition, which include headache, fever and a stiff neck. Most cases of meningitis are caused by viral infections, but bacterial and fungal infections can also lead to meningitis. Depending on the cause of the infection, meningitis can get better on its own in a couple of weeks — or it can be a life-threatening emergency requiring urgent antibiotic treatment.

Foothills Neurology